Answers and Explanations

  1. If she had known about his financial situation, she would have helped him out. Use the past perfect (had + past participle) in the “if” clause of the third conditional to talk about unreal past situations.
  2. I’ll be looking after their cat while they are away on holiday. The phrasal verb “to look after” means “to take care of.”
  3. He made his children do their homework every afternoon. The verbs “make” and “let” combine with an object plus the base form (without “to”) of the verb. Other verbs use the infinitive form of the verb (with “to”).
  4. The test was so difficult she had problems finishing it on time. Use “so” with an adjective and “such” with a noun phrase. 
  5. By the time she arrives, we will have finished our homework. With the time clause “by the time…” use the future perfect to describe something that will have happened up to that point in time.
  6. She had finished lunch by the time we arrived. Use the past perfect (had + participle) to express an action finished before another action in the past.
  7. The sunset at 9 last night. The verb “to set” is irregular.
  8. When I stopped to speak to Mary, she was picking some flowers in her garden. When using the verb “to stop,” use the infinitive form to express an action that you stopped in order to do. Use the gerund to express an action that you have stopped doing (and doesn’t continue).
  9. Despite studying hard, he failed the exam. Use the gerund or “having + past participle” following “despite.” Use a verb clause when following “although.”
  10. That room is being used for a meeting today. “Is being used” is the present continuous form of the passive voice that is required by this sentence.
  11. We would play tennis every day when we were young. “Would do something” and “used to do something” both express a habitual action in the past. “Used to do something” also expresses the idea that you do not do that action anymore.
  12. If I were you, I would wait a while to begin investing. Use “were” in the second conditional if clause for all subjects.
  13. He’ll give you a call as soon as he arrives. In a future time clause use the present simple. The construction is the same as for the first conditional.
  14. He really didn’t want to come last night. Neither did I. Use “neither” followed by the opposite form of the helping verb to state negative agreement.
  15. Do you think he knows what he wants? Be careful to change questions to standard sentence structure when asking an indirect question.
  16. I think San Francisco is as exciting as New York. Use “as … as” to show equality.
  17. Why are your hands so dirty? Well, I have been working in the garden. Use the present perfect continuous to show what has caused a present result.
  18. Did you remember to lock the door? The verb “stop” can change meaning when used with a gerund or infinitive.
  19. Which model goes 250 mph? Subject questions take standard positive sentence structure but begin with “who,” “whom” or “which.”
  20. That is the man whose grandfather founded Kentucky Root Beer. “Whose” is the possessive relative pronoun required in this sentence.
  21. I could hardly make out the ship in the distance. “Make out” is a phrasal verb meaning “to see in the distance.”
  22. Look at those clouds! It’s going to rain. “It’s” is a contraction of “it is,” the present tense. Use the future continuous when making a prediction based on the evidence at hand.
  23. Unless he comes, we won’t have much to talk about. “Unless he comes” is a conditional clause.
  24. He has no interest in continuing the project. Use “no” when preceding a noun that lacks an article.
  25. Where do you think Jane was yesterday? She must have been at home. Use “might have + participle” for a past modal verb of probability. The other forms include “could have + participle – possibility, must have + participle – almost certain, can’t have + participle – almost certain in a negative way.”
  26. Jack told me he was going to come the next day. Use the past progressive tense to refer to events that occurred in the past.
  27. He drove the car out of the garage and left for work. Use the prepositions “out of” when exiting a building.
  28. Jack came into a fortune when his great uncle Jack passed on. The phrasal verb “to come into” means “to inherit.”
  29. Unfortunately, Peter has few friends in Tacoma. Use “few” to express a small amount that is considered negative in a disappointing sense.
  30. “I will finish that project soon.” Ken said he would finish that project soon.”Will” becomes “would” in reported speech.
  31. In his position as managing director, he is responsible for more than 300 employees. Use “as” to indicate function, use “like” to indicate similarity.
  32. She wished she had bought a new car. The use of the verb “wish” in the past is followed by the past perfect similar to the third conditional.
  33. Fiestas have been made in Cologne, Germany for many years now. “Have been made” is the correct present perfect passive form required in this case.
  34. I think you had better see a doctor. “Had better,” “ought to,” and “should” are all ways of giving advice.
  35. You’ll be leaving for Tokyo soon, won’t you? Use the opposite of the auxiliary for a question tag.
  36. During the last market session, the Dow Jones dropped 67 points. Use “during” with a noun, “while” with a verb clause.
  37. “talk shop” is the right option because talking incessantly or loudly at a party is not odd behavior, but talking about a professional case in an informal setting is.
  38. Out of water Fish lives in water and therefore sea, ocean are all water(fish are found in both). The natural habitat of fish is not the aquarium.
  39. A stitch in time saves till nine- meaning a timely stitch can prevent the cloth from tearing for a long period of time. This phrase is used to explain why it is always better to choose a proactive approach.
  40. For no man, St Marker (1225) is said to have coined this idiom which means that just like a tide in the ocean waits for no one, time similarly does not wait for anyone. Man here is used in the general sense to refer to humanity.